I have done some preliminary investigation into the mechanics of elixir recipes, and here is how I think it works.
The critter part used impacts the duration and strength of the effect.
For Elixirs with only one possible strength (fireproof, stealth, heat resistance), each critter used contributes 2:30 to the duration.
For Elixirs that can have multiple strengths (like Speed Up), each critter used contributes 1:00 to the duration. The number of critters also contributes to the level of the effect: Using 1 or 2 critters results in the weakest effect. Using 3 critters produces a moderate strength. Using 4 critters produce the maximum strength.
Monster parts affect only the duration
There are three qualities for monster parts. Each monster part used will increase the duration of the elixir's effect by either 1:10, 1:50, 3:10. Monster parts have no effect on the strength of the effect. I have included a list of parts at the bottom of this post.
The duration for the elixir is simply the sum of the durations of its parts.
A Hot-Footed Frog adds 1:00 to an elixir's duration. A Bokoblin Horn adds 1:10. Those two durations sum to 2:10, so that's how long an elixir will last if you make one with just those two ingredients. Each additional Hot-Footed Frog will increase the duration by another 1:00. Each additional Bokoblin Horn would add 1:10.
Fireproof elixirs only have one possible strength, so each Fireproof Lizard used will increase the duration of the Elixir by 2:30. A Lizalfos Tail increases an Elixir's duration by 3:10. This means that a Fireproof Elixir made with 2 Fireproof Lizards and 1 Lizalfos Tail will have a duration of 8:10. (2:30 + 2:30 + 3:10)
On stamina restoring Elixirs
Using 1 Restless Cricket creates an Elixir that restores 1/5 of a stamina wheel. 2 crickets restore 2/5. Using 3 crickets jumps up to 4/5, and 4 crickets restore 5/5 (a full stamina wheel).
These Elixirs have no duration, so there is no benefit to using more monster parts (or better monster parts). A single Restless Cricket with a Keese Wing is just as good as a single Restless Cricket with 4 Lizalfos Tails.
On critical success
Every so often different music will play and you will get a better result than normal. I did not do any investigation on the chance of this happening (and if it can be manipulated), but it seems there are three possible results with Elixirs:
- The elixir will recover 3 hearts instead of zero.
- The effect will be one level stronger.
- The duration will be five minutes longer.
Table of monster part qualities
|Icy Lizalfos Tail||3:10|
|Red Lizalfos Tail||3:10|
|White Chuchu Jelly||1:50|
|Red Chuchu Jelly||1:50|
|Ice Keese Wing||1:50|
|Fire Keese Wing||1:50|
|Electric Keese Wing||1:50|
Here is a spreadsheet where I collected my results. https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1othik8IXaA42Lso_FOGgbhW7Oq08THdtC7P9C68Pixo/edit#gid=145670580